Curcumin is an anti-inflammatory as well as an antioxidant, but that is not the most intriguing part of the research. Lots of herbs and vitamins are anti-inflammatory or have antioxidant properties.
The most intriguing part is the idea that curcumin is structurally capable of binding to amyloid plaques and breaking up the aggregation of them. Curcumin literally sticks itself to the junk (amyloid plaque) and breaks up the group of them stuck together. This group of junk clogs up the brain and stops it from working. Down syndrome has a triplicate copy of the APP gene. Amyloid precursor protein gene. This is the gene associated with Alzheimer's disease. In Alzheimer's disease, brain researchers find the brains full of plaques and tangles. The plaques are called amyloid plaques.
Now, the big drawback I see to curcumin is getting it into the brain. It doesn't cross the BBB (blood brain barrier) easily. But, one brand, Longvida Curcumin, came up with an intriguing solution. They combined curcumin with lecithin. What does that do, you ask? Well, lecithin is phosphatidyl choline, a fat that will cross the BBB. Brilliant!!!
Source: Changing Minds
Curcumin, the bioactive compound found in the Indian curry spice turmeric, prevents brain damage caused by oxidative stress, the biggest biochemical hurdle for people with Down Syndrome. Studies also show that it prevents the formation of plaques in the brain that cause Alzheimer's Disease. 100% of people with Down Syndrome show signs of Alzheimer's Disease by the time they are 40 years old.
Source: Down Syndrome Treatment